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The number of buildings with outermost wall made of glass or building with large size windows is increasing, as living standards of people are changing and enhancing from year to year. There is strong need for energy efficient buildings by developing advanced coatings on glass with tuned optical properties to

  • reduce the heat transfer through the windows and to
  • suppress visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) light irritating human eyes.

Energy-efficient components are capable of intelligently regulating room temperature and are much demanded to reduce buildings’ energy consumption. Recently, chromogenic phase change materials (PCM) have been widely investigated for intelligent temperature regulation by taking advantages of their unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties across phase transition.

Thus, it is necessary to provide in-depth research of the mechanisms of chromogenic PCMs for intelligent temperature regulation, including latent heat, optical modulation, and mechanical deformation – both organic and inorganic PCMs with huge latent heats, and emerging PCMs, such as VO2, for the applications in temperature controls, SW, and radiative cooling surfaces.

Schematics of PCM for optical modulations, their mechanisms, and applications in energy-efficient windows: thermochromic windows [1], photochromic [2], electrochromic and self-adaptive radiative surfaces [3]. Electrochromic and photochromic SW colour in response to the applied voltage and light, respectively. Thermochromic and self-adaptive radiative surface SW response to the temperature.

[1] K. Yujie  et al., Adaptive Thermochromic Windows from Active Plasmonic Elastomers, Joule 3:3 (2019) 858
[2] Y. Wang et al., Switchable Materials for Smart Windows, Annual Rev. Chem. and Biomol.Eng. 7:283 (2016) 304
[3] M. Ono et al., Self-adaptive radiative cooling based on phase change materials, Optics Express 26:18 (2018) A777


The project has European added value as a strong group in Materials for Smart Coating. It will foster increase of the market footprint of science as well as ensure better connection between society, research and industry. Besides that, within the project, ERA Chair team will be developed. SWEB’s topical areas and expertise overlaid the European R&I challenges in advanced materials, European Innovation Leadership in Electronics and Photonics, European leadership in Emerging Enabling Technologies, and Climate-Neutral & Smart Cities within European Commissions’ (EC) Missions, Key Strategic Orientation and Work Programme R&I needs.